CCT® effects

CCT effects on lead-acid batteries

The technology that WaveTech GmbH has developed, drastically diminishes – and almost prevents – the formation of the harmful large lead sulphate crystals in lead-acid batteries. The technology is effective during the charging process of the battery, as high frequency pulses are sent through the battery. The pulses create a rapid change in the field strength over the electrodes, which supercharges the hydrogen and oxygen ions in the water of the electrolyte. These ions, with their high energy levels, are capable of breaking down the unwanted lead sulphate crystals.

Application on lead-acid batteries
On our pages ‘CCT® technology‘ and ‘CCT® in depth’, the basics and more advanced principles of WaveTech GmbH’s Crystal Control Technology are laid out.
In this section we explain, in detail, the positive effects of the application of our CCT on lead-acid batteries.

The two main improvements to lead-acid batteries

The effect on the battery is that the electric pulses renew and preserve the active material of the battery. The measurements that are performed on batteries that are treated with the Crystal Control Technology invariably show two striking results: The lifespan of the battery (BCL) doubles, while its effective capacity (LET) triples.

BCL doubles

The BCL, or the Battery Cycle Life, doubles. The BCL is the number of times a battery can be charged and discharged (charging cycles) before the battery capacity is reduced to 50% of the capacity of the battery when new.

In the graph below (taken from WaveTech’s own test program) the black line shows the performance of the untreated battery while the green line shows the performance of the battery which was treated with the Crystal Control Technology (CCT).

3.3a

The graph shows how the discharge time (on the vertical axis, expressed as a percentage of the initial capacity) relates to the number of charging and discharging cycles (on the horizontal axis, expressed as the aging process over time).

The batteries that were not treated with the Crystal Control Technology first show signs of ageing after just 24 charge cycles.
The batteries that were treated with the Crystal Control Technology don’t show signs of ageing until after 64 charge cycles. That is a difference of more than 150%.
After just 59 charge cycles, the untreated batteries reached 50% of their initial capacity (50% capacity is generally considered beyond the useful life of a battery); before the CCT batteries even begin to age, the non-treated batteries have already been scrapped.

Photo Test Rig

3.3b 3.3c

Batteries are often considered replaceable once the remaining capacity falls below 65%. In WaveTech’s tests this occurred in untreated batteries after just 35 cycles, compared to 73 for CCT treated batteries, thus yielding an improvement of >100%.

MIRA Test results

The graph above is taken from independent tests performed by MIRA Ltd (Motor Institute Research Association), Birmingham, England on the Puls-R 12V (a marine branded BEAT®50). Here, untreated batteries fell below 65% after just 41 cycles, compared to CCT treated batteries that were still above 65% after 100 cycles. This yields a lifespan improvement of >143%.

The general conclusion that can be drawn from the above, but also from many other tests, is that the lifespan of the treated batteries, measured over the charge and discharge cycles, more than doubles on average.

CCT saves money!

Doubling the battery cycle life of treated batteries means that the user has to spend only half of the money for buying replacement batteries. If the time for battery replacement labor is taken into account, the sum of the savings is considerably more than 50%. When considering applications where diesel powered generators are used in conjunction with batteries (i.e. refrigerated transport, telecom), the indirect savings far surpass the direct battery costs. In addition, an optimally performing battery further enhances the actual benefits during the operation of equipment powered by the CCT treated batteries (i.e. longer run times, more stable power delivery etc.). The lower downtime of the electronic device adds to the higher rate of efficiency. The batteries need to be charged less often.

LET triples

The LET, or the Lifetime Energy Throughput, triples. The LET is the amount of electrical energy that a battery can absorb and dissipate during its active life. The LET is a measure of the performance of the battery and is measured in Watt-hours. The LET reveals the effective capacity of a battery during its lifetime.

Tripling the effective capacity of the battery gives the user the feeling that the battery performs ‘as new’ during much of its rated lifetime. CCT also works for batteries that already show an advanced degree of ageing. The increase in capacity means that the reliability of the electric device using the battery increases significantly, which greatly enhances the user experience.

The graph below shows the difference between an untreated battery (black line) and a battery which is treated with the patented Crystal Control Technology (green line). The graph shows the variation of the voltage (vertical axis) that the battery can deliver as a function of the discharge time (horizontal axis).

3.3d

After the battery had endured 100 charging cycles, the voltage in the treated battery dropped to below 10.5 volts after 6 hours (while connecting a load on the battery with an ohmic resistance of 2.35 ohms).
The voltage of the battery that was not treated with the Crystal Control Technology dropped to below 10.5 V after just 2 hours with the same load applied. The difference in the discharge time was therefore 4 hours or 200% longer! (The discharge time is roughly proportional to the remaining capacity).

(Note: The above chart is actually compiled from the results of 24 separate 56 Ah Sonnenschein gel batteries that have been tested under laboratory conditions. In a significant number of cases, the capacity and performance increase reached 340%).

The specific test results:

  • If one considers the service life to be finished at approximately 65 – 67% rest capacity, the treated batteries have approximately 100%-146% longer service life (CCT treated batteries reach an approximately 65% capacity reduction after approximately 73-100 charging cycles, untreated after approximately 35-41 charging cycles).
  • CCT treated batteries have more effective capacity: the carved area in the curve shows the additional available effective capacity throughout the whole test program.
  • The benefits observed during the first cycles increase with the number of cycles (age), and the CCT treated batteries maintained their capacity at a constant level until after untreated batteries were already scrapped. The ageing of treated batteries wasn’t noticeable until after the complete fall out of the untreated batteries.
  • Discharge. At the 100th charge/discharge cycle in the MIRA tests, the untreated batteries took approximately 16 minutes to discharge, whereas the treated batteries took approximately 29 minutes. The final discharge duration of the treated batteries is equal to 66% of the initial capacity, whereas the duration of the untreated batteries is equal to 34% of the initial capacity. That gives approximately 94% longer usage/more capacity for the treated batteries. As noted in our laboratory tests above, we averaged a 200% improvement, with some cases reaching up to 340%. Customer field tests, under real world conditions, have typically outperformed our laboratory tests.
  • Less charge current is needed. Treated batteries were equipped with the BEAT50 that consumes 0.3A to operate. Therefore these batteries receive 0.3Ah less direct charge (in light of the charge delivering 1.2A, this makes an impact), yet those batteries fitted with a BEAT50 after 100 cycles actually consumed 20% less current i.e. <1.0A, and still delivered 94% more capacity (double).
  • Measured over 100 cycles, treated batteries lose an average of only 0.35% capacity per charge/discharge cycle, untreated batteries lose an average of 0.85% capacity per cycle. In extreme temperature situations, CCT treated batteries have shown reduced ageing rates as high as more than 10 times slower than untreated batteries.
  • In the last ageing phase, the untreated batteries became very unstable compared to the treated batteries that kept ageing at a stable predictable rate. This can have significant consequences on attached electronics (i.e. truck generators are often replaced with every second battery replacement, due to the additional strain placed by unstable batteries).

3.3e 3.3f

The Development of Increased Capacity over Time

Extensive lab tests show that Crystal Control Technology has great positive effects, but also that it takes a little bit time before the effects are noticeable. The curves below show the development of capacity over time.

 3.3g This measurement was taken after 3 – 4 cycles.
The total discharge time was around 9.5 hours, and a smaller capacity for treated batteries was noticed.
 3.3h This measurement was taken after 59 cycles.
Treated batteries are usable for 8.5 hours after one charge cycle; untreated batteries 6 hours.
3.3i Results from this measurement were taken after 100 cycles, and show several results from treated batteries taking from different test programs.As the graph shows the increased capacity is at times substantially higher than 300%.
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