CCT® in depth

WaveTech’s core technology – in depth

Intense research has made it possible to bring forth a theoretical basis for WaveTech’s Crystal Control Technology® (CCT®).

Lead-acid batteries store electrical energy by means of a chemical reaction between lead, lead dioxide and sulphuric acid. The most common damaging side effects in the chemical reactions in batteries is the growth of lead sulphate crystals on the negative electrode. That damaging effect is matched by the lack of density in the lead dioxide crystals that are formed on the positive electrode.

Our CCT® now offers a method to increase the growth of small, new, lead dioxide crystals on the positive electrode during the charging process, while reducing the growth of unwanted large lead sulphate crystals on the negative electrode of a battery. This effect is achieved by the BEAT products through the delivery of specially formulated, high-frequency electric pulses to the battery when it is charged. This means that when extra energy is applied to the ions in the electrolyte, the undesirable accretions of larger (difficult to break down) lead sulphate crystals are slowed considerably, if not reversed, while the growth of desirable homogenous lead dioxide crystals is increased.

Before we go into the details of Crystal Control Technology®, let’s first explore the basics of lead-acid battery technology.

Basic lead-acid battery technology

Lead-acid batteries store electrical energy by an electrochemical reaction between lead, lead dioxide and sulphuric acid, the last dissolved in demineralized water. A battery is made by placing two electrodes, made of pure lead (Pb), in a container with dilute sulphuric acid. After a short period, a chemical reaction begins that forms a layer of yellow-brown lead sulphate (PbSO4) on both electrodes.

When charging the battery, the lead sulphate on the positive electrode reacts, forming a thin layer of lead dioxide crystals (PbO2) that take the place of the lead sulphate.

The negative electrode reacts differently during the charging process. The supply of electrical energy to the battery causes the lead sulphate on the negative electrode to be dissolved back into the dilute sulphuric acid in the battery casing. After a charging process, a clean electrode of pure lead remains.

During the discharge of the battery the same process takes place, but then in the opposite direction. During the discharge process, the surface area of the electrodes changes proportionally according to the discharge speed. The electrochemical process takes place as long as there is a difference in electrical potential between the two electrodes.

Let’s further explore the process, step by step:

The Function of a Lead-Acid Battery, Normal Charge and Discharge Processes

3.2a Two plates of pure lead (Pb) are placed in a cell containing sulphuric acid (H2SO4) which is diluted with water (H2O)
3.2b Then after a short period, the chemical processes produce a yellow-brown layer of small lead sulphate crystals (PbSO4) on both plates. So far there are no electrical potential differences (voltage) between the plates, since their surfaces are chemically equal.
First, when the battery receives charge by applying an external voltage to the plates (electrodes), the surfaces of the electrodes change as follows:

  • On the negative electrode: 2H from a water molecule (H2O) binds to SO4 and forms an H2SO4 molecule (sulphuric acid) strengthening the existing sulphuric acid.
  • The Pb atom binds to the Pb electrode:
    • (1) PbSO4+2H ↔ Pb+ H2SO4
  • As the electric field between the electrodes builds, the water molecules are split into ions in this manner:
    • (2) 2H2O→2O (-ion) + 2H (+ion)
  • On the positive electrode: Oxygen from the divided water molecule (H2O) binds with the Pb to yield lead dioxide (PbO2):
    • (3) PbSO4+2HO ↔ PbO2+ H2SO4
3.2d When the charging process is finished, the cell will retain a voltage determined by the difference in potential between the different surfaces of the electrodes (lead dioxide and metallic lead) in relation to the electrolyte.
3.2e Considering the two electrodes: On the (negative) Pb electrode: pure lead on the (positive) PbO2 electrode: a layer of lead dioxide crystals


The Function of a Lead-Acid Battery
Normal Charge and Discharge Processes – The Problem

Positive Electrode


On the positive electrode negative O-ions migrate to the electrode to form lead dioxide. Further negative O-ions migrate towards the electrode attracted by already formed lead dioxide crystals. When lead dioxide crystals are formed, the negative O-ions prefer to bind to existing crystals rather than to “seek a place of their own” on the electrode in order to form new crystals, which would require more energy. 
 3.2h This leads to an uneven distribution of the crystals on the positive electrode, which means less capacity.  

Negative Electrode


On the negative electrode PbS04 crystals are built up again, this unwanted aspect of the process also results in the battery aging.    
 3.2j In the charging process the largest lead sulphate crystals (PbSO4) have difficulties dissolving completely as described, and parts of the electrode surfaces become inactive.
This is the most common reason for batteries decaying until they eventually become unserviceable.
 3.2m  WaveTech’s electron microscope pictures show a new, unused, electrode compared to the next picture.  
 3.2n An old destroyed electrode fully covered with lead sulphate crystals.


WaveTech’s revolutionary Crystal Control Technology®

Below is a simplified description of some of the reasons why WaveTech is able to achieve positive effects.

The pulses cause different effects at the positive pole and the negative pole of the battery. The positive electrode attracts the negatively charged oxygen ions from the water in the battery. These oxygen ions receive a higher energy and a higher speed. The super active oxygen ions are now able to break down existing large lead sulphate crystals to form lead dioxide. Thus homogenous lead dioxide  is formed on the positive electrode.

The negative electrode attracts positively charged hydrogen ions. The electric pulses supercharge the hydrogen ions which are now able to separate and break down the already formed, but undesirable, large lead sulphate crystals. The hydrogen and sulphur of these unwanted crystals are reabsorbed into the sulphuric acid.

Batteries that have been treated with the Crystal Control Technology BEAT products show, at the positive electrode, a remarkably homogeneous lead dioxide structure. The positive electrode has once again become efficient, so that the charging time of the battery decreases.

Step by step:

The Function of a Lead-Acid Battery

Normal Charge and Discharge Processes – The Solution

 3.2a When mounting BEAT products (or other products based on Crystal Control Technology®) to the battery terminals; rapid, short changes in electrical field force are imposed between the electrode and the solution. This increases the energy and velocity of the ions that leads to the electrodes, attracting more ions and thus improves the oxidation/crystallization processes.
 3.2p Ions are small electrically charged particles, which serve as components or “building materials” for desired and undesired crystals.

The increased energy makes the ion lose several of the “counter-ions” that had “attached themselves” to the “core-ion” due to their opposing polarity. As the “counter-ions” become separated, the “core-ion” further increases its velocity and energy.

On the positive electrode


On the PbO2 electrode the field strength causes the water to be split into negative (OH-) ions and positive (H+) hydrogen ions during charge. The negative oxygen ions gain so much energy that they get beneath the existing lead sulphate crystals at the positive electrode and form lead dioxide there.
3.2d Hence,  for a short period, the field force can dominate over the diffusion force, which is trying to spread the ions in the electrolytic solution. The stream of ions increases together with their velocity, and their energy rises. More energy is required for generating new crystals than for enlarging existing crystals. Therefore, this increased ion energy will yield a more homogeneous layer of small crystals covering the entire surface of the electrode, which means more energy to the battery.

On the negative electrode


On the Pb electrode, in the early phase of discharging, the electrode is coated more evenly; therefore, there is less free area for the formation of lead sulphate crystals. These crystals are consequently smaller and more evenly distributed. This means that the crystals can detach themselves better when charging takes place.
3.2f When the battery is charged, the field strength causes existing lead sulphate crystals to be separated from the lead electrode by the higher-energy positive hydrogen ion. Hydrogen and sulphur are reabsorbed into the sulphuric acid strengthening the electrolyte.
3.2g More energy is required for generating new crystals than for enlarging existing crystals, CCT® increases the “birth rate” of crystals, and ensures the new crystals build directly on the electrode instead of each other.
 3.2h The electrode is therefore coated more evenly with smaller and more evenly distributed crystals.
3.2j The crystals can detach themselves better when charging takes place. Hydrogen and sulphur are more easily reabsorbed into the electrolyte to strengthen it.
 32.k Standard charged Pb electrode. The electrode contains agglomerates of lead sulphate crystals (PbSO4) which indicates a reduced reactivity of the electrode. The electrode is less homogeneous already after four charge/discharge cycles.
 3.2l The CCT® charged Pb electrode shows no agglomerates of lead sulphate crystals.

In Summary

The application of rapid changes in the field force over the battery electrodes contributes to the following positive effects:

  • More ions with more energy arrive at the electrodes, where they contribute to the disintegration of lead sulphate crystals on the negative electrode and to the building of lead dioxide crystals on the positive electrode.
  • Since these ions have more energy, more new lead dioxide crystals can be built on the electrode surface, rather than larger crystals continuing to grow. The electrode surface becomes more homogeneous, consistent and solid.
  • Based upon the Boltzmann and Nernst equations (see formula’s below) one can show that the “birth rate” of new crystals, within certain limits, grows exponentially when applying and increasing this field force in short periods.
Boltzmann formula:  32.m
Nernst formula:  3.2n

The rate of change (dynamics) is exploited by accelerating the change in field force.

In summary, the Crystal Control Technology® adjusts the velocity of the change of condition to optimum values, by applying the physical and chemical laws that apply to the batteries in question.

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