CCT® technology

Watch below for an introduction to WaveTech’s Crystal Control Technology® (CCT®)

WaveTech’s core technology – basics

WaveTech GmbH specializes in the development of technologies for the targeted manipulation of crystallization formations within fluid media. The technology to favour growth of wanted crystals (or to prevent it) and to dismantle undesirable crystals or crystal structures, has been globally patented by WaveTech as Crystal Control Technology® (CCT®). The fundamentals of this technology are the subject of continual research.

3.1aThe CCT® technique deploys disruptive static and dynamic electrical fields to prevent or to stimulate crystal growth. The energy derived from these electrical fields controls the interaction between the ions in liquid(s) and the ions on the surface of the electrode(s) immersed in the liquid.

WaveTech uses this technology to produce highly competitive products that can be used at places where crystal formation plays an important role. The application of WaveTech’s CCT® in commercial product lines are numerous for both industrial and domestic use. This technology can, for example, be used to alter the molecular structures of crystal formations at the electrodes in a lead-acid battery.

CCT® used for lead-acid batteries

Lead-acid batteries store electrical energy by means of a chemical reaction between lead, lead dioxide and sulphuric acid. This happens in all kinds of lead-acid batteries, regardless of the type of battery: liquid, gel, AGM or advanced lead-acid batteries. The most common damaging side effects in these chemical reactions are the growth of large lead sulphate crystals on the negative electrodes. That damaging effect is matched by the lack of density in the lead dioxide crystals that are formed on the positive electrode.

Our CCT® offers a method to increase the growth of small, dense lead dioxide crystals on the positive electrode, while reducing the growth of unwanted large lead sulphate crystals on the negative electrode of a battery. This effect is achieved by the BEAT through the delivery of custom made high-frequency electric pulses to the battery during charging. When extra energy is applied to the ions in the electrolyte, the undesirable accretions of larger (difficult to break down) lead sulphate crystals are slowed considerably, if not reversed, while the growth of desirable lead dioxide crystals is increased.

CCT® provides:

  • Electrodynamic influence on ions in the electrolyte and on the electrodes, reducing the formation of larger unwanted lead sulphate crystals;
  • Renewal of the active material in a battery;
  • Conversion of non-active, large, lead sulphate crystals on the negative electrode into lead and sulphuric acid;
  • Renewal of the active material on the positive electrode by the formation of fine crystals of lead dioxide;
  • Improved structure of the positive electrode, making it more homogeneous and making the electrode work better, with increased durability;
  • A substantial saving of the electric current needed to charge the batteries, and subsequently, a substantial cut in the electricity bill and on the emission of greenhouse gasses.

Electron-microscopic photos from the WaveTech Research & Development Department show how crystal control inhibits the ageing process of the battery:

3.1b

  1. New positive electrode (lead dioxide) (PbO2) without lead sulphate crystals.
  2. Destroyed PbO2 electrode, coated with lead sulphate crystals which deposits have led to irreversible physical damage.
  3. Charged negative electrode Pb (lead), untreated and damaged.
  4. The charged Pb (lead) electrode treated with CCT® has a more homogeneous, compact structure.

Batteries treated with CCT® demonstrate an increased number of “reaction sites” and a more homogeneous lead dioxide structure on the positive electrode. This homogeneous structure is beneficial to overcome mass transfer limiting processes. The electrodes then work more efficiently and reliably. They also can better withstand unfavourable treatment (i.e. shock or impact) and/or extreme environmental conditions (i.e. operating temperatures).

CCT® benefits

  • The doubling of the lifespan of a lead-acid battery naturally means the cost for buying replacement batteries is reduced by more than 50%
    (The BCL* improves up to 140%; The *BCL, or the Battery Cycle Life is the number of times a battery can be charged and discharged (charging cycles) before the battery capacity is reduced to 50% of the capacity of a new battery.).
  • The costs for installing and uninstalling the batteries is cut by 50%.
  • The tripling of the effective capacity of the battery (improvements in LET* up to 340%), increases the effective use of the electrical device, and reduces the downtime of the electrical device that is powered by the batteries!
    The *LET, or the Lifetime Energy Throughput, triples. The LET is the amount of electrical energy (measured in Watt-hours) that a battery, during its active life, can absorb and again release.
  • Less current is needed to charge the batteries, resulting in electricity bill savings (typically 20%).
  • The batteries show an optimised charging cycle, causing the battery to more quickly be charged to the voltage for which they are designed.
  • The charge time is shorter, batteries charge better (reach a higher voltage) and require less charge (a decrease in energy conversion losses).
  • The batteries require less attention and maintenance (less gas formation and water filling);
  • The improvement of the performance of the battery go hand in hand with an improvement in the physical structure of the battery, they are more stable and robust, which obviously has a positive effect on the durability of the battery. The battery is less likely to fail due to causes associated with sulphation;
  • Reduces the downtime of the electrical vehicle that is propelled by the batteries. Sensitive electronic equipment attached to the battery equipment experiences less wear and tear. (CCT® keeps the battery voltage higher and more stable.)
WaveTech’s electron microscope pictures show a new, unused, electrode compared to… .. an old destroyed electrode fully covered with lead sulphate crystals.
 3.1c  3.1d

 

For a deeper understanding of Crystal Control Technology® please see our webpage:
CCT® in depth.

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